Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
European Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 123-129
Received: Aug. 2, 2019;
Accepted: Nov. 20, 2019;
Published: Dec. 4, 2019
Views 50 Downloads 33
Mustafa Mohamed Abdulateef, Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
Rushdi Abdulhameed Abdulameer, Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
Laith Hikmet Muhsun, Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections in humans, with more than 50% of the world’s population infected with these bacteria It is a micro-aerophilic, slow-growing, gram-negative spiral bacterium that colonizes the mucous lining of the human stomach. Warren and Marshall first cultured and identified the organism as Campylobacter pylori in 1982. In 1989, it was renamed and recognized to be associated closely with antral gastritis (gastric and duodenal ulcers in adults and children). Further evidence supported a link between chronic gastritis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in adults and malignancy, specifically gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Infection with this bacterium has been identified as a cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Globally, the prevalence of H. pylori-related infection is high compared to any other infectious diseases, and the rate of prevalence much higher in developing countries than in developed nations.
Mustafa Mohamed Abdulateef,
Rushdi Abdulhameed Abdulameer,
Laith Hikmet Muhsun,
Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding, European Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Vol. 7, No. 6,
2019, pp. 123-129.
Peura DA, Crowe SE. Helicobacter pylori. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, editors. Sleisenger and Fordtran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease. 9th edition, Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010. p. 833–45.
Linz B, Balloux F, Moodley Y, et al. An African origin for the intimate associationbetween humans and Helicobacter pylori. Nature 2007; 445 (7130): 915–8.
Kivi M, Tindberg Y. Helicobacter pylori occurrence and transmission: a family affair? Scand J Infect Dis 2006; 38 (6/7): 407–17.
Brown LM. Helicobacter pylori: epidemiology and routes of transmission. Epidemiol Rev 2000; 22 (2): 283–97.
Amieva MR, El-Omar EM. Host-bacterial interactions in Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology 2008; 134 (1): 306–23.
Bellack NR, Koehoorn MW, MacNab YC, et al. A conceptual model of water’s role as a reservoir in Helicobacter pylori transmission: a review of the evidence. Epidemiol Infect 2006; 134 (3): 439–49.
De Schryver AA, Van Hooste WL, Van Winckel MA, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection: a global occupational risk for healthcare workers? Int J Occup Environ Health 2004; 10 (4): 428–32.
Behrman SW. Management of complicated peptic ulcer disease. Arch Surg 2005; 140 (2): 201–8.
Labenz J, Borsch G. Role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the prevention of peptic ulcer bleeding relapse. Digestion 1994; 55 (1): 19–23.
Van Leerdam ME, Vreeburg EM, Rauws EA, et al. Acute upper GI bleeding: did anything change? Time trend analysis of incidence and outcome of acute upper GI bleeding between 1993/1994 and 2000. Am J. Gastroenterol 2003; 98 (7): 1494-9.
Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB, et al. Incidence of and mortality from acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the United Kingdom. Steering Committee and members of the National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. Clinical research ed. BMJ 1995; 311 (6999): 222–6.
Elmunzer BJ, Young SD, Inadomi JM, et al. Systematic review of the predictors of recurrent hemorrhage after endoscopic hemostatic therapy for bleeding peptic ulcers. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103 (10): 2625–32 [quiz: 2633].
Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102 (8): 1808–25.
Lim, Lee Guan, Khek Yu Ho, J. B. So, C. J. Khor, Li Lin Lim, Pui Li Teoh, and Khay Guan Yeoh. "Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori for peptic ulcer bleeding in clinical practice-factors associated with non-diagnosis and non-treatment, and diagnostic yield in various settings." The Turkish journal of gastroenterology: the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology 25, no. 1, 2014: 157-161.
Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O’Morain CA, et al. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection—The Maastricht IV/Florence Consensus Report. Gut 2012; 61: 646-64.
Versalovic J. Helicobacter pylori. Pathology and diagnostic strategies. Am J Clin Pathol 2003; 119: 403-12.
Midolo P, Marshall BJ. Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Urease tests. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2000; 29: 871-8.
Gisbert JP, Abraira V. Accuracy of Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 848-63.
Gatta L, Vakil N, Ricci C, et al. Effect of proton pump inhibitors and antacid therapy on 13C urea breath tests and stool test for Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 823-9.
El-Zimaity HM. Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori with biopsy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2000; 29: 863-9.
Megraud F, Lehours P. Helicobacter pylori detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007; 20: 280-322.
Vakil N, Megraud F. Eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 985-1001.
Megraud F, Coenen S, Versporten A, et al. Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics in Europe and its relationship to antibiotic consumption. Gut 2013; 62: 34 42.
Greenberg ER, Anderson GL, Morgan DR, et al. 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: A randomised trial. Lancet 2011; 378: 507-14.
Megraud F. H. pylori antibiotic resistance: Prevalence, importance, and advances in testing. Gut 2004; 53: 1374-84.
Peura DA. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. In: Wolfe MM, editor. Therapy of digestive disorders. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2006. p 277.
Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O’Morain C, et al. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: The Maastricht III Consensus Report. Gut 2007; 56: 772-81.
Gisbert JP, Calvet X. Review article: Rifabutin in the treatment of refractory Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 35: 209-21.
Federico A, Nardone G, Gravina AG, et al. Efficacy of5-day levofloxacin-containing concomitant therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology 2012; 143: 55-61 e51; quiz e13-54.
Megraud F. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. In: Rathbone BK, Heatley RV, editors. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disease. London: Blackwell Scientific Publication; 1993. pp. 107–23.
Veldhuyzen van zantel SJ. Do socioeconimicstatus, marital status and occupation influence the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection? Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1995; 9 (Suppl 2): 41–4.
Hossein Khedmat, MD, Reza Karbasi-Afshar, MD, Shahram Agah, MD, and Saeed Taheri, MD. Helicobacter pylori Infection in the general population: A Middle Eastern perspective. Caspian J Intern Med. 2013 Autumn; 4 (4): 745–753.
Al-Makdad A. M., Al-Dholaee M. H, Thabet A. A. K, Al-Haimi M. A, Balfaqih O. S. and Al-Hadad A. M. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection inYemeni Patients. University of Science and Technology YEMENI JOURNAL FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES-p. 36.
Suchartlikitwong, Sakolwan, Kamolyut Lapumnuaypol, Rungsun Rerknimitr, and Duangporn Werawatganon. "Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and Helicobacter pylori infection: review of 3, 488 Thai patients." Asian Biomedicine 9, no. 1, 2015: 87-93.
Zhang C, Yamada N, Wu YL, Wen M, Matsuhisa T, Matsukura N. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal histological features of gastric ulcer patients with chronic gastritis patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11: 976–81.
Okan A, Tankurt E, Aslan BU, et al. Relationship between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and Helicobacterpylori infection in bleeding or uncomplicated peptic ulcers: A case-control study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003; 18: 18–25.
Chong VH, Lim KC, Rajendran N. Prevalence of active Helicobacter pylori infection among patients referred for endoscopy in Brunei Darussalam. Singapore Med J. 2008; 49: 42–6.
Zhang C, Yamada N, Wu YL, Wen M, Matsuhisa T, Matsukura N. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11: 791–6.
Dhakhwa R, Acharya IL, Shrestha HG, Joshi DM, Lama S, Lakhey M. Histopathologic study of chronic antral gastritis. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2012; 10: 57–60.
Kawasaki M, Kawasaki T, Ogaki T, Itoh K, Kobayashi S, Yoshimizu Y, et al. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nepal: Low prevalence in an isolated rural village. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998; 10: 47–50.
Malaty HM, El-Kasabany A, Graham DY, Miller CC, Reddy SG, Srinivasan SR, et al. Age at acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection: A follow-up study from infancy to adulthood. Lancet. 2002; 359: 931–5.
Aalykke C, Lauritsen JM, Hallas J, Reinholdt S, Krogfelt K, Lauritsen K. Helicobacter pylori and risk of ulcer bleeding among users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a case–control study. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 1305–9.
Huang JQ, Lad RJ, Sridhar S, Sumanac K, Hunt RH. H. pylori infection increases the risk of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration. Gastroenterology 1999; 116 (4 part 2): A192A192 (Abstract).
Laine L, Marin-Sorensen M, Weinstein WM. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastric ulcers do not require Helicobacter pylori for their development. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87: 1398 402.